Five species of sea turtles are to be found in Guinea-Bissau, in special in Poilão Island, at the archipelago of Bijagos, the greatest nesting place for the green turtle in Western Africa. Are also to be found loggerhead, hawksbill, olive ridley and leatherback sea turtles. Research on Guinea-Bissau sea turtles are recent and still limited.

The capture of spawning females as a protein source is a traditional activity in the region, although in smaller numbers if compared with other countries, constitutes a threat to the conservation of sea turtles.

The Instituto da Biodiversidade e das Áreas Protegidas (IBAP), is presently the entity responsible for the sea turtle conservation.